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We studied the associations between intake of specific dietary nutrients during pregnancy and gut microbiota composition.Utilizing the Norwegian No MIC cohort, we examined the relations between intakes of 28 dietary macro- and micronutrients during pregnancy, derived from food frequency questionnaires administered to 60 women in the second trimester, and observed taxonomic differences in their gut microbiota four days after delivery (assessed through Illumina 16S r RNA amplicon analysis).The result suggests that certain types of fat may be associated with a pro-inflammatory gut microbiota, which could be a potential explanation for its adverse effects on human health.

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As an additional sensitivity analysis, we provide the dietary association results within the strata of term deliveries (Additional file : Table S4) and observed that the effect sizes are consistent with the earlier analysis.

We observed that dietary intakes of fat-soluble vitamins, as well as variations in saturated and mono-unsaturated fat intake, were associated with significant changes in phyla composition.

The largest number of significant associations was observed with .

It is plausible that some of the effects of vitamins are mediated through an effect on GM composition, yet there is limited literature on the associations between vitamins or minerals and gut microbiota.

Antimicrobial effects of vitamin D have been reported: Vitamin D boosts innate immunity by facilitating production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines [].Most research examining the influence of diet on gut microbes has focused on combinations of resistant starch, polysaccharides, and fats.